was an age of war, fire, epidemic and execution, but also of social transformations. With the dissolution of the monasteries in the 1530s land had been given to new landowners (= proprietary terrieri) , and consequently to a new class of non-aristocratic landowners. The battle between old and new classes led to the Civil War and to the execution of Charles I and to a decade (the 1650s) of a Commonwealth government under Oliver Cromwell. England
This new class of landowners led to the creation of new markets and new ways to spend money. Towns like
London became more and more fashionable, and there was a growing (=crescente) fascination for food from continental Europe. This was also due to the marriage of Charles I to the French princess Henrietta Maria in 1625, the forced exile in France and of many supporters of the monarchy during the Commonwealth, and Charles II’s marriage to the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza in 1662. Holland
French cuisine gave new life to the English food with anchovies (= acciughe), capers (=capperi) and wine, and introducing coulis (= purè di verdure) , roux (= besciamella), ragouts (= ragù) and fricassees (=fricassea). French dishes were nicknamed (=soprannominatI) kickshaws, after the French ‘quelquechose’, ‘something’. Dishes became more aromatic dishes, and English people started enjoying salads with their meals.
Pasqua Rosee, a servant to a Turkish merchant, opened the first English coffee house in
London in 1652 bringing from ingredients and expertise (= abilità). Turkey