During the 18th century, English life started to change because the industrial revolution was taking hold (= prendere forza) Vast numbers of people moved from the countryside to the towns and the cities incorporated every sort of activity.
Technological innovations improved also the kitchen utensils and habits developed. Meat did not have to be salted but it became available (=disponibile) all year round; seeds were imported from Holland and gave new varieties of fruit and vegetables; better transport allowed fish to be brought fresh from the sea, and regional foods could be enjoyed all over (=per tutto) the country and all over the year.
Roast beef became a sort of symbol of a British national identity, in opposition to the fancy(=fantasiose) sauces of
. A muslin (=di mussola) cloth for steaming (= cuocere al vapour), allowed British to make puddings more easily. Thanks to better means of communication, rich people could also enjoy from macaroni France Italy, curry, pilau rice and mango from . They grew exotic fruits in their greenhouses (=serre), and kept ice-cream in their ice houses (refrigerators). Among ladies from the middle classes demand for cookery books increased to save them house from the boring duty of instructing her kitchen maids (= cameriere che lavorano in cucina). Among the main recipe books is The Art of Cookery written in an accessible language which also maid could understand. India
Distilling industry at the beginning of the century received banking support (=aiuti finanziari da banche) because spirits – like gin and brandy – offered a solution to the problem of the corn surplus (= surplus di grano). On the other hand , the incidence of alcoholism among men, women and even children became terribly high.
As a consequence this situation led to health (=salute) problems and gout(=gotta), diabetes, heart and liver (=fegato) disease became widespread (common). Besides many food were manipulated with poisonous (=velenosi) ingredients to make them appear fresh.