American literature describes particular figures typical of the new settlements (= colonie). Also British literature shows the reader characters typical of the new industrialized society. A typical example is Charles Dickens (1812 – 1870) in A Christams Carol (1843).
Ebenezer Scrooge, a selfish, old man, does not love Christmas and his atmosphere. His clerk (= impiegato), Bob Cratchit, trembles (= trema) because Scrooge does not spend money for a fire (= camino) . Scrooge’s nephew (= nipote di zio), Fred, invites him to his annual Christmas party, but he refuses to go. Two gentlemen also ask Scrooge for some money for the poor and he sends them away. .
Once at home, Scrooge receives the visit of a ghost: his dead partner, Jacob Marley. Jacob tells him that as he was a greedy (= avido) and selfish man like Scrooge, he has been condemned to go around the Earth in chains (= catene). Marley also warns (= avverte) Scrooge that three spirits will visit him during the three following nights and then disappears.
The first ghost who comes is the Ghost of Christmas Past, a strange childlike (= infantile) phantom who shows Scrooge his past Christmases. Scrooge revisits his childhood school days, his apprenticeship (= apprendistato), and his engagement (= fidanzamento) to Belle. Bella left Scrooge because he was too selfish and greedy. Scrooge cries and goes back to bed.
The Ghost of Christmas Present, shows Scrooge London in that period and takes him to see Cratchit family. Scrooge discovers that Bob Cratchit’s son, Tiny Tim, is very ill. Then the spirit takes him to his nephew’s. At the end of the day, the spirit vanishes and Scrooge sees another one coming towards him: the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come. He takes Scrooge to the tomb of an unknown man. Scrooge asks the name of the dead man and is shocked: on the grave (= tomba) he sees his name. The ghost disappears while Scrooge is asking him for help.
The following day Scrooge wakes up a new man: he sends a giant Christmas turkey (= tacchino) to Cratchit and goes to Fred’s party. During the year he treats (= tratta) Tiny Tim as if he were his own child(= come se fosse suo figlio), helps the poor, and starts being warm and generous and kind to everyone.