altri linguaggi – Newspeak

George Orwell (1903 – 1950) deals with a new way of  speaking  in 1984 (1948). He names it Newspeak and is a language directly based on English, but with a reduced and simplified vocabulary and grammar. The author also includes an essay (saggio) about it in an Appendix where he explains its basic principle: removing (rimuovere) all shades (sfumature) of meaning (significato) from language, leaving simple dichotomies (pleasure and pain, happiness and sadness, good thoughts and thoughtcrimes) to reinforce the total dominance of the State. Orwell had already written about a sort of new way of speaking in anearlier essay Politics and the English Language in which he cites (cita)examples of dying metaphors, pompous diction or rhetoric, and meaningless words (parole senza significato). Some meaningful examples are words such as crimethink; doubleplusungood; and Ingsoc which respectively mean thought-crime; extremely bad; and English Socialism. Nowadays  the same word Newspeak has assumed the meaning of restriction of the language by  totalitarian governments.